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Angela J. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Aggress Behav See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract There are many explanations for high rates of sexual aggression, with no one theory Wifr the field. This study extends past research by evaluating an expanded version of the confluence model with a community sample. One hour audio computer-assisted self-interviews were completed by young single men.

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This paper describes a study which added alcohol to the confluence model. At least half of all sexual assaults involve alcohol use Testa, With all three indicators included, the lookin ed for Despite the many strengths of the confluence model, it does not include the full range of risk factors that have been associated with perpetration.

The effects of alcohol on sexual behavior have been delineated several ways Cooper, ; Testa, The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Aggress Behav See other articles in PMC that Wfe the published article. Furthermore, Abbey et al.

For example, Muehlenhard and Linton surveyed male college students who reported on two dates: one that involved some type of forced sex and one that did not. For example, Malamuth et al. The vast majority of past research has been conducted with incarcerated offenders or college students, thereby limiting the generalizability of the findings. Sexual assault typically occurs in dating and party situations in which alcohol consumption is common Abbey, kooking Testa, Men with high scores on the hostile masculinity construct distrust women, are easily angered by them, and hold adversarial views about relationships.

In a second model, these authors included empathy as a predictor variable. of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of looknig assault when drinking alcohol. Goals of the Study and Hypotheses The primary goal of this study is to examine the expanded version of the confluence model depicted in Figure 1 with a large sample of young single men identified through stratified random Conflufnce in one metropolitan area.

Further, Malamuth et al.

Risk factors for sexual aggression in young men: an expansion of the confluence model

Many researchers have reported that perpetrators are more likely to drink lookking and to be problem drinkers than nonperpetrators Abbey et al. Malamuth argued that psychopathy-related personality traits can be added to the confluence model as a Confluecne factor that indirectly contributes to sexual aggression because they encourage hostile masculinity.

Although impersonal sex and hostile masculinity are hypothesized to independently predict sexual assault perpetration, a key component of the confluence model is that these pathways interact such that men high on both hostile masculinity and impersonal sex report the highest levels of sexual assault. Witnessing or experiencing abuse as and associating with delinquent peers create a social environment which teaches men to treat women as objects rather than equals.

In order to directly assess alcohol—involved sexual assaults, sexual aggression was divided into two components: the of sexually aggressive acts in which the perpetrator consumed alcohol and the of sexually aggressive acts in which the perpetrator did not consume alcohol. The of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished.

For example, the initial model included social isolation; however it was not lookong supported and has not been retained Malamuth et al.

In one of the few studies that added psychopathy-related ses traits to the confluence model, Knight and Sims-Knight used structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of adult men who were members of a civic organization. Although there was no evidence of a main effect of empathy, there was a ificant three—way interaction with hostile masculinity and impersonal sex.

Angela J. Men who have sex at earlier ages and who have numerous sexual partners without emotional commitment are expected to be more likely to sexually assault women for two reasons.

They prefer frequent, casual sexual relationships to long-term, monogamous relationships. Concern about these high prevalence rates has generated a plethora of research focused on understanding the causes of sexual aggression in nonincarcerated samples. For example, Zawacki et al. Thus, hostile masculinity and impersonal sex work together synergistically to predict sexual aggression.

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Keywords: sexual aggression, perpetration, personality, misperception, alcohol Beginning with early work by Kaninresearchers have identified male college students who acknowledge using verbal coercion, physical force, and alcohol to obtain sex from female acquaintances against their wishes. Men who score high on the impersonal sex construct view sex as a game to be won, rather than a source of emotional closeness Malamuth, ; Malamuth Confluehce al. Numerous studies conducted with college students have found that sexually aggressive men have greater hostility toward women, stronger sexual dominance motives, more traditional attitudes toward gender roles and sexual relationships, and greater acceptance of rape myths Abbey et al.

Malamuth has made modest modifications to the confluence model over the years.

The confluence model

This study extends past research by evaluating an expanded version of the confluence model with a community sample. They combined hostile masculinity and psychopathic personality traits into the same construct, and this construct indirectly related to sexual aggression through Conflkence links to adolescent delinquency and aggressive sexual fantasies.

The confluence model also includes distal childhood and adolescent experiences hypothesized to indirectly contribute to sexual aggression by encouraging hostility toward women and an impersonal orientation to sex. There were also indirect effects of childhood victimization, personality traits associated with subclinical levels of psychopathy, and alcohol consumption.

Does alcohol contribute to the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration?

Malamuth et al. This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels.

Furthermore, although constructs such as witnessing or experiencing violence in childhood and adolescent delinquency are theorized to be causally prior to the development of impersonal sexual behavior and hostile masculinity, most examinations of the model have been cross—sectional see Malamuth et al.

For perpetrators, the salient cues Confluenec likely to be their sexual arousal, sense of entitlement, and anger, all of which encourage sexual aggression Abbey et al. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the confluence model, as well as the importance of broadening this theory to include additional constructs. The second pathway of the confluence model, hostile masculinity, focuses on sexual assault from a power perspective Malamuth et al.

Confluence model of sexual assault perpetration

Participants were men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. The characteristics and consequences of assaults that involve alcohol are often different from assaults that do not involve alcohol. These men often have friends who encourage the discussion of sexual conquests, thus reinforcing the need for numerous sexual experiences.

Alcohol Consumption Alcohol consumption is another situational factor that has frequently been linked to sexual assault perpetration. Delinquency during adolescence has also been linked to sexual aggression in studies with incarcerated rapists, college students, and community samples Ageton, ; Calhoun et al. The knowledge that many perpetrators drink heavily in the types of situations in which sexual assault typically occurs does not demonstrate that these perpetrators were se when they committed sexual assault.

Most of Conlfuence incidents occur with girlfriends, casual dates, and friends.